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This course module provides the foundational knowledge needed to evaluate horses with temporomandibular joint and hyoid apparatus disorders. Content includes topographic features, a review of the muscle mastication, and detailed descriptions of specific articular features of the temporomandibular joint and hyoid apparatus. Biomechanical insights into mandibular movement during mastication, hyoid movements, and the effects of dental occlusion on pain and dysfunction of the equine head are provided.

Pathological descriptions include material on temporomandibular joint pain and the pathogenesis of
temporohyoid osteoarthropathy. Physical examination skills include observations of static and dynamic behaviors and the role of active and passive joint motion in identifying sources of pain and discomfort localized to the equine head. Treatment options include a discussion of conservative approaches for managing temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction in horses.