Neurophysiology Module

All modules are RACE Approved for Continuing Education Credit.

4 Hours of CE Credit and RACE Approved

Diagnosis and Management of Spinal Pain and Dysfunction in Horses

This course module provides a basic introduction to neurophysiologic principles related to axial skeleton pain. Content includes information of the pain sensitive tissues with the axial skeleton, spinal pain mechanisms, and subjective and objective measures of musculoskeletal pain in horses. Neuroanatomical descriptions of nociceptors and other spinal tissue receptors that contribute to acute and chronic pain syndromes are included. Spinal pain mechanisms are reviewed as they relate to peripheral and central sensitization, ganglionitis, and effects on mechanoreception and motor control issues. An introduction to the physical, functional, and behavioral aspects of pain are presented.

Section 1 – Pain-sensitive Tissues within the Axial Skeleton of Horses

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course content, the student will be able to…

  • Describe the unique properties of somatic sensations
  • Discuss the role of mechanoreceptors in somatic proprioception
  • Identify tissues that are innervated with nociceptive fibers
  • Explain the differences between acute versus chronic back pain
  • Describe the receptors localized to the skin and their respective functions
  • Outline the cutaneous innervations patterns of the skin
  • Discuss the role of myofascial receptors and the innervation of spinal ligaments
  • Describe articular innervation patterns and approaches for performing perineural injections
  • Explain the different approaches for performing sacroiliac joint injections

Clips

  • Introduction
  • Innervation of the skin
  • Myofascial innervation
  • Joint innervation
  • Vertebral body innervation

Section 2 – Spinal Pain Mechanisms

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course content, the student will be able to…

  • Discuss the purpose of pain
  • Describe the different types of perceived pain
  • Explain the differences between acute versus chronic pain mechanisms
  • Discuss the role of peripheral and central sensitization in musculoskeletal pain
  • Identify behavioral changes associated with pain
  • Describe the interactions between nociceptive and mechanoreceptive signaling
  • Discuss the role of dorsal root ganglionitis in chronic pain
  • Define the term joint position sense
  • Discuss the role repetitive use injuries in the development of chronic neck pain
  • Describe how nociceptive mechanisms cause changes in motor control

Clips

  • Introduction
  • Behavioral issues
  • Myofascial mechanisms
  • Segmental mechanisms
  • Joint position sense
  • Impaired motor control

Section 3 – Recognizing Pain in Horses

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course content, the student will be able to…

  • Describe the differences between pain versus nociception
  • Define nociception and nociceptive mechanisms
  • Discuss how pain descriptors or characteristics can be used in clinical practice
  • Describe the physical, functional, and behavioral aspects of pain
  • Outline subjective and objective measures of pain
  • Explain the difference between direct and indirect pain assessment
  • Discuss the clinical application of objective pain measures
  • Explain the role of behavioral attributes for assessing pain
  • Describe how digital palpation and manual therapies can be used in pain evaluations

Clips

  • Introduction
  • Diagnosing pain
  • Pain measures
  • Subjective, direct measures
  • Objective measures of pain
kevin haussler

Kevin K. Haussler

Dr. Haussler graduated from The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, and completed a small animal internship in Sacramento, California. To further his training in the conservative management of spinal-related disorders, he completed a certification program in human training at Palmer College of Chiropractic-West. He attended the University of California-Davis and attained a PhD focused on spinal pathology and pelvic biomechanics in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Post-doctorate training involved the evaluation of in-vivo spinal kinematics in horses at Cornell University. While at Cornell, Dr. Haussler directed the newly formed Integrative Medicine Service which provided chiropractic, acupuncture, and physical therapy services to both small and large animals. He is an Associate Professor at the Orthopaedic Research Center at Colorado State University and is involved in teaching, clinical duties, and research into the objective assessment of musculoskeletal pain, spinal dysfunction, and the application of physical therapy and rehabilitation.

Dr. Haussler is a charter diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation and course instructor for the Equine Rehabilitation Certification course, co-branded by the University of Tennessee and Colorado State University.